Friday, December 21, 2018

Is there any connection between heart and brain?

Your heart and your brain are more intricately connected than you may realize. Brain signals the heart to pump its oxygen-rich blood through autonomic nervous system, and heart responds by delivering blood to the entire body, including to brain. If brain does not receive enough oxygen from the heart, you may experience symptoms ranging from fuzzy thinking to a life-threatening stroke. When blood flow to the brain is interrupted or blocked by a blood clot or plaque that has broken away from an artery or valve and is floating in the bloodstream leads to stroke. The lack of oxygen can cause brain cells to die, leading to symptoms of dementia, disabilities, or even death. The major step to the heart is also ways to protect brain. The steps to prevent from the stroke: Managing your blood pressure is especially important, because high blood pressure is the leading cause of stroke. It also may cause tiny lesions in the brain that can slow your thinking and progress to a loss of brain function in the future.

Steps to Take during Heart Surgery: When your Heart Surgery includes the value replacement, it is all the more important to consider ways to protect your brain. Valve replacement procedures, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), can be lifesaving interventions. It will correct restricted blood flow caused by a narrowing or obstruction of the heart valve. However, during valve replacement, small particles of debris can break loose and find their way into the blood vessels of the brain.
What is good for the heart is good for the brain. Understanding the unique relationship between the heart and brain, and taking steps to protect both of these vital organs throughout life, is important for lifelong health.

Friday, December 14, 2018

Devices and Procedures to Treat Heart attack

The Heart devices which are used to treat Failure Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and many more. The procedures generally followed to treat the Heart Failure is Heart transplantation, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, also referred to as angioplasty), Coronary artery bypass, Valve replacement. The various techniques used during Heart Valve Replacement is replacing a narrowed valve, replacing a leaky valve whereas surgical options for valve replacement include: Mechanical valve, Tissue valve, Ross Procedure, TAVI/TAVR procedure, newer surgery options.

The various implantable devices for heart is mainly for Rhythm Control (Implantable cardioverter defibrillator and Pacemaker) and to Support the Heart and Circulation (Left Ventricular Assist Device).For each devices the implantable procedure, Usage and need various depending on the heart condition, when? , how? , why it is used?
The Common Heart attack warning signs are pain or discomfort in chest, light-headedness, nausea or vomiting, Jaw, neck or back pain, Discomfort or pain in arm or shoulder and shortness of breath. The major 5 ways to prevent Heart attack up taking of medications properly, Follow up with the doctor, participate in Cardiac Rehab, Manage risk factors, and Get support from others.

The commonly used cardiovascular medications Anticoagulants, Antiplatelet Agents and Dual, Antiplatelet Therapy, ACE Inhibitors,  Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, Angiotensin-Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Cholesterol-lowering medications, Digitalis Preparations, Diuretics and Vasodilators.
Major consideration is none of the patient is supposed to vary the dose concentration without concerning the doctor.
The major treatments for heart attack done in hospitals are Thrombolysis and Coronary angioplasty/coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), Artificial heart valve surgery, Atherectomy, Bypass surgery, Cardiomyoplasty, Heart transplant, Minimally invasive heart surgery, Radiofrequency ablation, Stent procedure, Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR).

Sports Cardiology

The athlete management is complex and requires a concerted collaboration among nutritionists, coaches, exercise physiologists, physicians, nurses, physical educators, and psychologists, among others. For the best interest of the athlete physician is expected to pursue medical decisions. The coach who is responsible of decision making requires the input of a multidisciplinary team, the athlete, and family. The physician’s role starts with pre-participation screening (history, physical examination, and testing as needed) , as well as deciding on immediate participation or return to play; involvement in the elaboration of policies promoting wellness of athletes; and supervision of exercise intensification in cardiac rehabilitation, promoting prevention and management of sudden cardiac death in athletes, maximizing cardiovascular performance without the use of drugs for Performance enhancing, and ensuring the safety of sports arena (e.g., availability of automated external defibrillators).

The sports medicine includes not only competitive athletes but also anyone who exercises (amateur or professionals). Although sports can confer the fitness to athletes, there is a risk of sports-related sudden cardiac death. The tragic death of athlete leads to negative response amoung society and media, although the general benefits of exercise outweigh the risk. Commonly, sudden cardiac death is triggered by a ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia degenerating into VF(malignant tachyarrhythmia). The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, channelopathies, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, or coronary congenital abnormalities, among others are typically an underlying substrate for arrhythmia trigger.

Sports Cardiology has attained clinical and research advances in cardiac imaging, electrophysiology and exercise physiology to enable better diagnostic and therapeutic management of our patients. One recent advancement has been to try and better differentiate athletic cardiac remodelling from inherited cardiomyopathies and other pathologies.

Highlights of recent advances in pediatric cardiology

In past two years, considerable advances have been made in the field of pediatric cardiology which includes evaluating the mechanism responsible for cardiovascular disease and the development of diagnostic techniques and treatment strategies. We should other factors like genetic and environmental factors and their interactions involved in the mechanisms for a variety of pediatric cardiology  diseases, which is yet to be cleared. The techniques and treatment are needed to be standardized and developed further.

The highlights of recent advancement:

The mortality period of Truncus arteriosus remains high. Children who undergo the state have a high risk for mortality within the first year of life, with an operative mortality rate of 7% and a late mortality rate of 5.8%.Congenital heart disease is increasing the risk for dementia. People who survived with congenital heart disease in their adulthood had an elevated risk for dementia, particularly early-onset dementia. Death because SIDS more likely in siblings of victims. Children with a sibling, who died from sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS, are more prone to SIDS than general population. Mortality risk has been increased in adults with congenital heart disease Compared with other patients for heart transplantation. Children with congenital heart defects may have increased late CV risk in their mother. Exposure to statin during pregnancy increases risk for ventricular septal defects in infants. The FDA announced the approval of a heart valve designed for pediatric patients has been expanded to include a size small enough to be used in newborn patients. Shorter childhood height increases risk for future stroke. Patients who were short at age 7 to 13 years have an increased risk for ischemic stroke. The risk for intracerebral hemorrhage was also increased in men who were short at age 7 to 13 years, but not in women.

Pediatric cardiology

There are number of  heart  conditions that can affect children. Few children have structural differences by birth others involve the ele...